Maxsim2 – Interactive PKPD Simulation

Maxsim2 is an easy to use, intuitive, and interactive application for pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) simulation developed by the Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics in close collaboration with Prof. Johan Gabrielsson.


A gallery of common PK and PD models is provided by which one interacts using sliders, check boxes, and number fields. Parameters such as volumes, clearance, partition coefficients, pharmacodynamic parameters, and parameters related to absorption and dosage regimens can be changed, which in real time is mirrored in changes of concentration-time or response-time profiles. This interactivity and direct feedback of what-if scenarios give a very good understanding of both the qualitative and quantitative impact of different parameters.

A screenshot of the Maxsim2 graphical user interface showing a simulation of plasma drug concentration (red) and drug effect (blue) in a human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model after three consecutive dose administrations: intravenous bolus, oral, and intravenous infusion, respectively. The slider, in this example, controls hepatic clearance, i.e., how fast the liver is able to remove the drug from the blood. Changes in this parameter are reflected in real time in the corresponding changes of the curves in the time-concentration/effect diagram.

Maxsim2 is an excellent tool for dynamic interactive presentation of the interplay between physiology, pharmacology, and pharmacokinetic processes. Its ease of use yet wide scope makes it is an ideal application for both educational and professional users where thorough understanding and communication of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic phenomena are important.


  • Dynamic interactive “what-if” analysis
  • Standard compartment models
  • Physiologically based models
  • Response models for describing pharmacodynamic effects
  • Easy to specify different dosage regimens including extravascular, i.v. infusion, and i.v. bolus